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According to Soddy, isotopes had atomic nuclei with the same charge but different atomic weights. It was soon found that isotopism is inherent, not only in the "radioactive region" of the periodic system, and that many stable elements also have isotopes. The first stable isotopes were found to belong to neon. This discovery was made by J. J. Thomson and his co-worker, the English physicist and chemist Francis William Aston. To account for the true cause of isotopism we shall have to get somewhat ahead of our story.

Of keenest interest to Rutherford was the behaviour of a particles in collisions with various materials, for instance, with thin metal sheets or foil. In 1909, Rutherford's assistants, Hans Wilhelm Geiger and Ernest Marsden (later Sir Ernest), observed an amazing phenomenon. They had been bombarding gold foil with a particles. The great majority of the Particles behaved as could be expected on the basis of theory: they were scattered at definite angles. But some recoiled backward as if they had met with a massive obstacle.

Aa>«. tan. flat w Ta 1S4 1S3 Caa •alHn alia Pb roes T„ii Th 125 232,5 S M « W ' • CI • • • RO B. 5 — « R'O5 | RO' Ill' R'0 S — Oc all. Os 191 Hra naa. I>a Tan. Jr Pt (Au) 1*1 IMJI — Ian u 238,5 a a • a• CAM: | RO1| RH)' RO' | RH'I RH'| RM'| RH | X Mail—4m- 1869 — 1906. would hardly be proper to put them into different! spaces of the periodic system, though, as was subsequently found, they differed in their atomic weights. e. j Hence, if radon, thoron and actinon are chemical elements, they are, firstly, chemically inert, and secondly, there is only one empty place in Mendeleev's table for them.

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